|City in the United States|
|Bijnaam: “River City, Sac-Town, Sac, Sacto, Camellia City of the World, America’s Most Diverse City“|
|– land||253,62 km²|
|– water||5,65 km²|
(April 1, 2020)
|– agglomeration||2.6 million|
|Mayor||Darrell Steinberg (D)|
|Downtown Sacramento from the air|
According to LIUXERS, Sacramento is the capital of the US state of California and the capital of Sacramento County. The city is located at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers in the north of California ‘s great Central Valley. With a population of 466,488 according to the 2010 census, it is the sixth largest city in California. Sacramento is also the cultural, economic and political center of an agglomeration of more than 2.5 million inhabitants. This makes it the fourth largest conurbation in the state and the 22nd in the country. Sacramento is an ethnically diverse and well-integrated city.
The city came about through the efforts of Swiss migrant John Sutter, his son John Sutter Jr., and James W. Marshall. Due to its strategic location, Sacramento quickly grew into a major city. During and after the California gold rush, Sacramento was an important hub, a center for trade and agriculture, and the terminus of several routes. Sacramento has been the capital of California since 1854.
Before European colonization, the region was inhabited by Nisenan and Plains Miwok Indians.
In 1799 or 1808, Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered the Sacramento Valley and the river of the same name. A writer on the expedition described the diverse, fertile valley. It was, he thought, like the holy sacrament. The valley, river and present city owe their name to that comparison.
Swiss pioneer John Sutter, along with several others, settled in the area in August 1839. He established a walled trading colony, which he called New Helvetia, but which is now known as Sutter’s Fort. In 1847, he received 2,000 fruit trees, kicking off farming in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, James W. Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, about 50 miles northeast of the fort. Although Sutter wanted to limit its disclosure, the news soon reached the general public, sparking a gold rush that drew hundreds of thousands of people to California. It was John Sutter Jr.who then, together with Samuel Brannan, designed the city of Sacramento. Sutter Jr. hired engineer William H. Warner to design the street plan.
Sacramento in 1849
The California Capitol
The portion of Sacramento that Warner drew is east and south of the mouth of the American River in the Sacramento. Several neighboring towns and cities, such as Fair Oaks, Carmichael, Citrus Heights, Elk Grove, Folsom, Rancho Cordova, Roseville, Rocklin, West Sacramento, Natomas, Del Paso Heights, Orangevale, and North Highlandswill eventually become part of the agglomeration. The citizens of Sacramento signed the city’s charter in 1849, which was recognized by the new California government in 1850. The city was incorporated on February 27, 1850; making it the oldest city in the state. Although the town suffered from floods, fires and cholera epidemics in the early 1850s, it continued to grow rapidly, in part due to its good location close to the Mother Lode.
The First and Second Opium Wars between China and the European powers, as well as severe poverty, caused many Chinese to flee to the west coast of the United States in the 1840s and 1850s. Most arrived in San Francisco, which was the largest city at the time, as well as to Sacramento. The city had its own Chinatown along I Street between 2nd and 6th Street. Chinese people in the United States have been discriminated against for a long time. However, many Chinese remained resilient under increasing pressure from white workers, among others. Among other things, they contributed to the construction of the railroads and levees in Sacramento and the surrounding country.
In 1854, the California Legislature, supported by Governor John Bigler, voted to make Sacramento the new capital of California. Construction began on the Capitol in 1860 in a style reminiscent of the Capitol in Washington DC. In 1869, while construction was still underway, the two houses of parliament met for the first time in the Capitol. With its newfound status and strategic location, Sacramento thrived. It became the western terminus of the Pony Express and later of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Construction on the latter had begun in Sacramento and was funded by “The Big Four”: Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, Collis P. Huntington en Leland Stanford.
In 1850, the city flooded, leading to cholera and flu epidemics. Also in 1861, the year Leland Stanford became governor, Sacramento flooded. Beginning in 1862, Sacramento’s streets were systematically raised, building brick walls over them, filling the remaining space with earth, and laying new road surfaces. What used to be the ground floor, now became the basement. To prevent this, many buildings were lifted to the correct level with a jack.
The rivers were not only a source of trouble; they also provided transportation and increased trade. Public works were more than once funded by tolls recovered from shipping on the Sacramento and American Rivers. As the importance of mining declined, a strong agricultural economy developed around Sacramento.
The current city charter was passed by voters in 1920. A city administration with a council, a mayor and a city manager was chosen. In 1964, the city of North Sacramento merged with Sacramento, greatly increasing its population. The Natomas neighborhood was also gradually added to Sacramento.
Like many other cities in the US, downtown Sacramento fell into disrepair during the 1950s. The wealthy citizens moved en masse to the new suburbs. That trend has now reversed, especially with remodeling and renovation projects in the historic heart of Sacramento. The Sacramento redevelopment is sometimes cited as one of the most successful in the country. As a result of that success, the metropolitan area is now among the fastest growing in the state. This also makes it one of the fastest gentrifying, after New York and San Francisco; it forms an overflow from the Bay.
Sacramento is located in the Sacramento Valley, the northern part of the Central Valley, at 9 meters altitude. The city was built at the confluence of the Sacramento Rivers from the north and the American River from the east, which then flow southward as the Sacramento. Much of the adjacent area west of the city is used to control potential flooding, as the city is vulnerable to them. This is also why the conurbation extends 6 km west of downtown (West Sacramento), but 48 km east and northeast and 16 km south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the place occupies an areaof 259 km², of which 2.19% is surface water.
The 2010 census found that there were 466,488 people living in Sacramento. In 2017, the population was estimated at 501,901. The population density was 1,799 people/km². The ethnic makeup of the population was as follows: 45.0% Caucasian, 17.8% Asian, 16.6% African American, 1.4% Pacific Islander, and 1.1% Native American. The largest groups of Asian Americans in Sacramento were Chinese, Hmong, Filipinos, Indians, Vietnamese, Laotians, and Japanese. In addition, 12.3% identified with another race and 7.1% with two or more races. Overall, 26.9% of residents identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino; the vast majority of these were of Mexican origin.
Sacramento has its own international airport, Sacramento International Airport, accessible via Highway 5, including Yolobus.
Located on both Interstate 80 and Interstate 5, with branches off to Interstate 50 and Highway 99, Sacramento can be called a major highway interchange.
The Sacramento Regional Transit District is responsible for public transportation, using buses and light rail. With the Light Rail, Sacramento has its own form of a tram network. The Blue and Gold lines opened in 1987 and the Green line in 2012. This makes it the tenth busiest light rail network in America. There are 60 bus routes serving a total area of 1.0826 km².
California State University – Sacramento is the most prominent university in the area. The University of California – Davis is located 15 miles west of the capital. The eminent research hospital UC Davis Medical Center is also located in Sacramento.
There are two newspapers: the Sacramento Bee and Sacramento News & Review. The latter, a weekly newspaper, has the entertainment agenda and is available free of charge.
The Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament
Sacramento has been the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese since 1886.
The Sacramento Kings Basketball Club is the only Sacramento sports club to play in one of the four largest American sports leagues.
- Big Four House
- California State Capitol
- Governor’s Mansion
- Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament
- Leland Stanford Mansion
- Old Sacramento
- Pony Express Terminal
- Sutter’s Fort
- Tower Bridge
- University Arboretum
Sacramento, according to the organization Sister Cities International, has city ties with:
- Ashkelon (Israël)
- Bethlehem (Palestine)
- Chisinau (Moldavia)
- Hamilton (New Zealand)
- Jinan (China)
- Liestal (Switzerland)
- Manila (Philippines)
- Matsuyama (Japan)
- Mexicali (Mexico)
- Pasay (Philippines)
- San Juan de Oriente (Nicaragua)
- Yongsan-gu (Zuid-Korea)