Direct skin contact with a heat source above 50 degrees results in tissue damage. The reason for this is the low thermal conductivity of the skin. If the burn affects the uppermost layer of the dermis in addition to the epidermis, burn blisters form that are filled with liquid.

What is a burn blister?

According to wholevehicles, a burn blister is a second degree burn. It arises between the upper skin (epidermis) and the dermis (corium). The skin over the bladder is taut and stable. It is also filled with tissue fluid, which is also known as a serous transudate. This liquid is used to cool the underlying wound.

It shields the injury from external influences and prevents the penetration of germs. If a blister bursts, the light red, oozing leather skin appears. Since the receptors are retained in grade II burns, the blisters cause severe pain.

Whether medical treatment is needed depends on the intensity of the pain and the size of the bladder. Unauthorized opening of a blister is to be avoided, as penetrating germs can lead to inflammation. These are in need of treatment.


Burns are one of the most common injuries in everyday life. Accidents can happen quickly, especially if they are carelessly handled with household appliances such as irons or stovetops. Typical triggers for burn blisters are contact with heated liquids such as water or oil and direct contact with hot objects.

Another possibility is heat build-up through friction. This is often the case in motorcycle accidents, for example, when the driver slips over the asphalt when falling.

At temperatures of 50 to 60 degrees, protein denatures and the heat destroys the tissue cells. Due to the poor conductivity of the skin, local heat effects cannot spread quickly enough. The heat therefore remains in one place for too long and damages the skin. The body forms burn blisters to protect the injured area and to prevent infection.

Symptoms, ailments & signs

A burn blister is caused by burning the skin, causing a blister to form. Of course, this phenomenon is associated with typical symptoms that are characteristic of a burn blister. This includes, for example, permanent burning that will occur immediately after the burn.

However, immediate cooling of the affected area can help. Under certain circumstances, the burn blister can enlarge considerably within a short period of time. If the pressure inside becomes too great, the blister will burst and the liquid will escape. This process is usually associated with a strong burning sensation, as there is now an open wound.

In this context, further discomfort can arise if this open wound becomes inflamed. Bacteria can establish themselves and pus fluid forms. Anyone who leaves this clinical picture without medical and drug treatment is running a great risk.

In such a case, a visit to the doctor should not be put off on the back burner. The subsequent healing process of a burn blister can also lead to severe itching ]. However, this typical symptom indicates complete and rapid regeneration of the skin.

Diagnosis & course

The diagnosis is made on the one hand through a conversation with the patient and on the other hand through an assessment of the burn wound. If the patient cannot be approached due to an accident, for example, the doctor will recognize a burn blister based on its typical appearance.

While blisters caused by severe sunburn appear colorless, a burn blister is yellowish. The reason for this is the color of the wound fluid. In addition, the filled bladder yields to pressure, but does not burst. The surrounding skin is reddened. Burn blisters usually heal without leaving scars.

However, pigment disorders may occur in the affected areas. If neither the patient nor the doctor opens the bladder, it will open by itself after a few days. Underneath, a new, intact surface of the skin can be seen, which is still sensitive, but usually heals quickly. The healing time is between two and three weeks. This depends on the severity of the burn and the size of the bladder.


Burn blisters are usually harmless and resolve on their own within a few days. Complications can arise if the burn blister bursts before wound healing is complete. When the burn blister bursts, germs can get onto the sensitive dermis and cause infections and bacterial inflammation.

Due to the already weakened tissue, it can take several weeks after a renewed inflammation until the burn blister has completely healed. Complications can also arise from pressing on the burn bladder, as this delays the healing process and increases the risk of pathogens getting under the skin. Burn blisters at the typical stress points can lead to tension and incorrect stress on the muscles, which in turn leads to pain and overstrain.

Larger burn blisters carry the risk of permanent skin changes, and viral or bacterial skin infections can develop quickly. There can also be complications associated with treating burn blisters. Home remedies such as ointments or fats can lead to an infection, while plasters slow down natural wound healing.

If sterile tools are not used to pierce the burn blister, scars can also form. In order to avoid complications of this kind, burn blisters should always be opened by the family doctor and treated with regard to the cause.

When should you go to the doctor?

If there is a small burn blister, there should be no complications. However, this can change if the unprotected blister opens. Something similar threatens if the person concerned opens the blister himself and bacteria or dirt get into it. In this case, the wound may become inflamed. Tetanus is also possible. A tetanus syringe should be considered if the burn wound is contaminated. It is best for the person affected to leave the burn blister unopened until it has dried up.

Complications are more likely with large burn blisters. The deeper the skin layers under the burn blister are damaged, the more problematic it can become. It is also important where the burn blister has formed. Friction or pressure on the burn blister increases the chances of complications. If a burn blister covers a large area, a doctor should always be consulted.

Burned skin is predestined for inflammation. A doctor makes the judgment as to whether a large burn blister needs to be opened or treated to avoid complications. He can tell whether a scar will form or not. That being said, doctors can gauge how deep the burn goes. On the one hand, the shock of extensive burns and, on the other hand, a loss of fluid can lead to complications. In addition, if there is a lack of sterility, there is a risk of sepsis.

Treatment & Therapy

There are various first aid measures for burn blisters that need to be observed. The affected area must first be exposed. Clothing fabric stores heat and aggravates the symptoms. Since bubbles often take several hours to form, cooling can prevent them from forming. Running water with temperatures of 15 to 20 degrees is ideal for this. This also applies if a bubble has formed directly.

Avoid cooling with ice, as the temperature difference further damages the skin. The same applies to rubbing in with home remedies such as flour or fats, as they make further medical treatment more difficult. When the bladder is opened, the protection against germs is lost, which can lead to inflammation. Only the intact blister can prevent the penetration of bacteria.

If a doctor’s visit is necessary, he will resort to various treatment options. Puncturing the blister is possible. The doctor draws fluid from the bladder to relieve tension. The skin over the injury is preserved, and germs can get into the wound with this method as well. The most common option is to prescribe a pain reliever and a cooling ointment.

In this case, the doctor simply applies a hydroactive wound dressing and waits for the burn blister to dry out naturally. With this method, it is important to change the bandage or plaster regularly to aid wound healing. If the bladder is already open, the wound must be rinsed and cleaned beforehand.

Outlook & forecast

The outlook and prognosis for a burn blister can vary greatly, as various complications can arise in connection with a burn blister.

Normally, an existing burn blister should recede and heal completely within a few days. The prerequisite for this, of course, is strict cleanliness and hygiene, which must be given. However, this can also lead to some complications.

It is not uncommon for such a burn blister to fill up with pus fluid or blood, so that a doctor should be consulted as soon as possible. If a burn blister filled with pus or blood is not treated by a doctor, the bacteria and viruses in it can get into the human bloodstream. This can lead to a dangerous infection or blood poisoning, with the result that there is an acute danger to life.

Side effects of this infection and blood poisoning can be a general malaise, a high temperature, vomiting or even long-lasting nausea, which have a negative impact on the entire course of a burn blister.

In order to avoid these side effects and complications, medical and drug treatment should be carried out. This can have a positive influence on the prospect and prognosis of a quick healing.


In order to prevent burn blisters, careful handling of household appliances is essential. Should burns occur, the person affected should cool the areas immediately. Cold water will relieve the pain and may prevent a burn blister from forming.


A small burn blister does not usually require any special aftercare. However, larger burn blisters and those that have injured deeper layers of the skin may require follow-up care. The consequences of a burn blister depend on the extent and depth of the burn. The location of the burn blister may also require follow-up care.

In many cases, the affected person can take care of the burn bladder himself. Superficial burn blisters usually heal without consequences after a while. The healing process can be accelerated with aloe vera gel. Larger burn blisters can ignite after opening. They can water and fester. The regrowing skin can be stretched over a long period of time or be sensitive to UV radiation. Therefore, depending on the symptoms, aftercare consists in protecting the healing wound or in a correspondingly frequent supply of sunscreen.

If deeper layers of the skin have also been injured, follow-up care should be left to a doctor. Weeping and bleeding burn blisters that do not close usually require expert care. Follow-up care may include covering the burn blister if it is exposed to chafing from clothing. In the case of very deep and improperly treated burn blisters, surgical interventions or skin grafts may be necessary.

Medical follow-up care is indicated in the case of a large or deep burn blister caused by acid. Self-treatment can be contraindicated here.

You can do that yourself

A burn blister does not necessarily have to be treated by a doctor. Various self-help tips and home remedies reduce the symptoms and speed up the healing process.

First of all: cool the affected area under running water and supply it with fresh air. If dirt has got into the wound, the burn blister must be disinfected with a suitable tool and bandaged with a burn plaster. If an emergency kit is not available, vinegar or distilled alcohol can be used for disinfection.

Closed burn blisters can alternatively be supplied with quark or yoghurt. For the next few days, the burn blister can be treated with aloe vera to reduce the scarring. Potato juice or honey can also help with minor burns. A home remedy for the pain are cold tea bags that are placed on the skin like a compress. Anti-inflammatory teas such as black or chamomile tea are ideal.

Open blisters should not be treated with home remedies, ointments or powder, as this can lead to inflammation and the like. can lead. If the burn blister does not heal within a few days, despite the above measures, or if it causes severe pain, a visit to a doctor is recommended. If you have larger burn blisters, you should go straight to your doctor.

Burn Blister

Burn Blister Guide